The End of the Beginning (2)

After sending yesterday’s message to my friend, she responded and some more up-dating was required. So this was my response to her response.


The first step is to understand that each of us is programmed at conception. Each of us is the expression of code written entirely by random without our input or that of anyone else, parents included. Done.

The second step is to organize the code (sequence the DNA) so that it can be read. Done.

The third and fourth steps are being implemented in tandem. Interpret the code and engineer it. Done for plants on a wide-scale and a growing number of animal species.

The fifth step is to engineer a human genome. The Chinese did this first last year, much to the shock of the genetics community. They used fetuses that were “non-viable” (could not come to term), but they crossed the line into human research. The UK gave approval for a new set of experiments that are very modest in goal, but push things one step further. There are a number of other experiments now completed, all for noble purposes associated with disease, but all involving precisely the same techniques as will be used for other kinds of engineering in the future.

A major step was taken very recently at a global summit on gene editing leaving “the door open to one of the most controversial uses of that technology, altering human eggs, sperm, or early embryos in a way that allows those changes to be inherited by future generations (my emphasis). In a statement issued on Thursday as the summit ended, the organizers said the promise of such “germline editing” was so great that “intensive basic and preclinical research” on non-human animals “is clearly needed and should proceed.”

They added that any such changes should not be allowed to continue to pregnancy, but that is the longer-term purposed for any such experiments and everyone knows it. Again, it’s always for noble purposes now, but the ignoble is dealt with in precisely the same manner. The Brits are doing a great deal along these lines and some from the Imperial College believe they have now identified the genes associated with intelligence, another small but critical step.

The potential threat from all of this (if you read the global summit article above, among many others) has led to very emotional and bitter debates, but the direction is set, although the debate and what lies behind it are almost entirely unknown to the public at the moment. That will come.

Gene editing/engineering is now publicly recognized as a threat by the US intelligence community, “Genome editing is a weapon of mass destruction. That’s according to James Clapper, U.S. director of national intelligence, in the annual worldwide threat assessment report of the U.S. intelligence community, added gene editing to a list of threats posed by “weapons of mass destruction and proliferation.” Good article on this at the MIT Tech Review. I have to admit, that does not bring a smile to my face. Just what we do not need, another weapon of mass destruction! But it is what it is, so we have to deal with it.

Two processes entirely beyond human control until now have determined the development of the human race. Genetics provided as great a variety of different kinds of humans as could be provided, given the number of eggs and sperm available. Natural selection allowed those best adapted to whatever circumstances were current at their birth to prosper and leave more progeny than those less well-endowed.

Those processes are much too slow for the challenges of today and tomorrow. Appropriately, humans are now aware that they can take over the processes that have been random for tens of thousands of years and do it themselves to themselves and their progeny. It is not that we will do it. We are doing it and we will do more in days to come. Five years from now, we will be in a different place. Ten years, yet another. Change is already very rapid by historical standards, but more importantly, it is accelerating.

Those are my original messages. In the next post, I will add some reflections and comments beyond those above as my thinking on this topic continues to develop.

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This is a personal blog, more of a personal notebook, unadvertised and without promotion. I try to post on a weekly basis, but there is no guarantee. Should you stumble across it and wish to be notified of new posts, just enter your email address at the upper-right of this page. I have no other use for email addresses. Rest assured, yours will be kept private. I also now tweet to share articles and essays that I think are important, but do not have room for here. You are welcome to make comments, if they are on topic and polite. I have no time or space for insults, foul language, or anything I judge to be offensive to readers.

Posted in genetics, Technology | Leave a comment

As we come to the End of the Beginning

Are human beings organic machines operated by organic computers that are programmed at the point of conception? How does this limit our “free will”? Do we have any free will now? These are genuine “existential” questions, those that go directly to the concept of who we are – our existence.

I have written in the past on the topics of genetics, genomics, genetic engineering, gene therapy, and so forth, but I always have trouble getting across the basic issue – who we are. Recently, a friend wrote about genetics and behavior and I tried to answer her questions in an email. Below is my first response, lightly edited. I will publish my second follow-up response tomorrow. Then in a third post, I will sum up my feelings on this topic beyond just the material covered here.

Folks, we are entering a transition in human history unlike any before. This is just a step along the way, but new steps are taken every day. We are nearing the end of the beginning of that transition, if we are not already there.

The really interesting developments are in our understanding of human behavior, not human memory. If you follow genetics at all closely, you can see it unfolding right now.

A large majority of liberals, a good majority of moderates, and a smaller, but growing, number of conservatives accept that being gay is “natural”, i.e. gays are genetically pre-disposed to homosexual activity. Therefore, they cannot be blamed for it nor did they choose it, but should be accepted as who they are by nature. I take that position myself. We use words like “by nature” instead of “genetic predisposition” because we are more comfortable with them.

Will those who accept gays as natural be prepared to accept that racism is a genetic predisposition too? In other words, racists are born, not made? But like homosexuality, genetic racism would not be obvious until later in the life of the individual, not at birth.

If we defend gays on a natural/genetic basis, are we ready to defend racists on the same grounds?

Are we ready to have our own DNA sequenced, interpreted, and be found to have some unpleasant genetic code included among the 20–25,000 genes and 3 billion base pairs of our code (and that’s just DNA, there is more than that to the human genome)?

Are we willing to accept that we are programmed with behavioral predispositions, not just hair and eye color, from conception? Are we willing to accept that our “free will” is in great part an illusion? Some scientists already argue that free will is entirely an illusion, but I don’t find their arguments, despite some fascinating research, as being at all sufficient. However, I do accept that we have severe limitations to our free will and that is reflected in how very slowly and incompletely human behavior changes over time.

This is only the very tip of a rapidly growing research iceberg. It is mainstream, not fringe. But it is very upsetting to people. These are not simply existential questions, this is existential reality. Every year, it gets more interesting, but the gap between research and public awareness grows wider.

As only one example, “loneliness” is a subject of study that is “part of a growing effort to map out the genetics of social behavior and its underpinnings in the brain” and reported in Quanta magazine. Today, loneliness, tomorrow, take your behavioral pick.

One of these days, I have argued elsewhere, awareness will suddenly increase. We are waiting for something that forces us to confront ourselves and what we are doing. It may be an event, but the event is not the cause, anymore than the stock market crash in ’29 caused the Depression. It is a process and it is unfolding. It will only seem sudden to the unaware. Research into genetics and the human genome cannot be stopped. Humans will not stop looking for answers to their questions.

We are alive during the most important transition in human history. We will engineer ourselves and our progeny in the not-so-distant future. The debate will likely occur during your and my lifetimes.

We will create the next stage in human evolution. Very exciting, but the getting from here to there is going to be met with fear and often with loathing. We will know how we will respond only when we get there. Political ideology will not tell us now how we will react to what is coming. But there is probably a set of genes in our DNA that could provide us with an answer.

Good, bad, or indifferent, these are exciting times indeed! Come what may, I am happy to see it happen while I am alive, even if I end up appalled with the results. If the latter, maybe I can get that re-engineered!

A tough topic and a huge topic that I had put aside as too time-consuming to deal with “right now”. Well, that’s a good excuse never to get around to it, so my friend’s questions gave me an incentive to begin to put things together. This is that beginning.

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This is a personal blog, more of a personal notebook, unadvertised and without promotion. I try to post on a weekly basis, but there is no guarantee. Should you stumble across it and wish to be notified of new posts, just enter your email address at the upper-right of this page. I have no other use for email addresses. Rest assured, yours will be kept private. I also now tweet to share articles and essays that I think are important, but do not have room for here. You are welcome to make comments, if they are on topic and polite. I have no time or space for insults, foul language, or anything I judge to be offensive to readers.

Posted in genetics, Technology, The Future | Leave a comment

Terrorism in the Age of the Market State

I wanted to take a moment to share this with you today. The following comes from Stratfor, the influential subscription service that covers geopolitics in all its many forms. Normally behind a “pay wall”, I have permission to republish, so I am offering it to you as food for thought.

Terrorism in the Age of the Market State
June 19, 2016

Analysis

Editor’s Note: In 2008, Stratfor contributor and editorial board member Philip Bobbitt, widely considered a leader in the field of international security, published Terror and Consent, which argued that every era of constitutional order is afflicted by its own unique brand of terrorism. Jay Ogilvy, who chairs Stratfor’s editorial board, sat down with Bobbitt to discuss the current incarnation of terrorism in light of the Orlando shootings.

Jay Ogilvy: In my earlier column introducing Philip Bobbitt, I gave much less attention to his book, Terror and Consent, than to two of his other books. For obvious reasons, it’s time we give Terror and Consent the attention it deserves. And it deserves quite a lot. In his cover story review in The New York Times’ “Sunday Book Review,” Niall Ferguson calls it, “quite simply the most profound book to have been written on the subject of American foreign policy since the attacks of 9/11 — indeed, since the end of the cold war.”

Like Bobbitt’s earlier book, The Shield of Achilles, the argument of Terror and Consent is based on his reading of Western history since France’s King Charles VIII invaded Italy in 1494. According to Bobbitt, the centuries since have seen a succession of different constitutional orders, from the Machiavellian princely state, through the dynastic kingly state, the aristocratic territorial state, the imperial state nation and the industrial nation state to what Bobbitt calls the informational market state, which is just now emerging. Each constitutional order has its own epochal war, and the treaties that conclude those wars determine the terms on which the following constitutional order will be built.

What Terror and Consent adds to this already magisterial construction is another column in a vast matrix of correspondences, this time with respect to terrorism. It turns out, not altogether surprisingly once one has caught the Hegelian sweep of Bobbitt’s thinking, that each of the epochs has its own brand of terrorism. Understanding this historicity of terrorism is important for, like those apocryphal generals who always prepare for the last war, we fight yesterday’s terrorism at our peril.

Over the centuries, the nature of terrorism morphs in part because of advances in technology, from knives and pitchforks to weapons of mass destruction. But more profoundly, the nature of terrorism flexes to the structure of each new constitutional order. “In each era, terrorism derives its ideology in reaction to the raison d’etre of the dominant constitutional order, at the same time negating and rejecting that form’s unique ideology but mimicking the form’s structural characteristics.”

So, for example, in the kingly state, the state and the monarch are joined as one: L’etat c’est moi. And the form of terrorism that typifies the era of the kingly state is piracy perpetrated by sea captains who regard themselves, vis-à-vis the states arrayed against them, as enjoying all the sovereignty of kings.

Bobbitt summarizes the relationships between constitutional orders and their corresponding terrorisms as follows:

“So it was that princely states coexisted with fanatically religious mercenaries, kingly states flourished in the golden age of piracy, territorial states vied with the private armies of commercial consortia for overseas revenues and investments, imperial state nations struggled with international anarchists, and nation states attempted to suppress national liberation movements. And so it will be when the market state finds it has generated a terrorism that negates the very individual choice that the State exalts, and puts in service of that negation the networked, decentralized, outsourcing global methods characteristic of the market state itself.”

And so it has come to pass in Orlando. As many commentators have remarked, the choice of a gay bar as the target represented an attack on the kind of individual liberty that is so prized in the market state. As Frank Bruni put it on the op-ed page of The New York Times:

“This was no more an attack just on L.G.B.T. people than the bloodshed at the offices of Charlie Hebdo in Paris was an attack solely on satirists. Both were attacks on freedom itself. Both took aim at societies that, at their best, integrate and celebrate diverse points of view, diverse systems of belief, diverse ways to love.”

Bobbitt acknowledges that these are early days for the market state, which itself could unfold in several different forms. On the very first page of his text, Bobbitt calls out three different wars on terror: “an attempt to preempt attacks by global, networked terrorists; a struggle to prevent the spread of weapons of mass destruction; and the worldwide endeavor to protect civilians from natural catastrophes.” In light of the mass killings by so-called “lone wolf” shooters from Sandy Hook and San Bernardino to Orlando, I asked Professor Bobbitt whether or not we should consider a fourth war against terror.

Here is his reply:

Philip Bobbitt: As we search to find a successful method of preventing terrorist attacks like the one in Orlando, it might be worthwhile to visit one of the common myths that arise in the wake of such atrocities. This is the myth of the “lone wolf.”

Last December, U.S. President Barack Obama observed that,

“… the terrorist threat has evolved into a new phase. As we become better at preventing complex, multifaceted attacks like 9/11, terrorists turned to less complicated acts of violence like the mass shootings that are all too common in our society. It is this type of attack we saw at Fort Hood in 2009, in Chattanooga earlier this year and now San Bernardino.”

This is unquestionably true, and much credit must be given to the FBI and the intelligence services for the fact that the United States has not suffered the kinds of attacks we saw in Paris. We should be very wary, however, about claims — which seem invariably to come quickly after a shooting — that the terrorist was “self-radicalized” and operated essentially alone.

The myth of the lone wolf is that of the killer who is inspired by a terrorist group’s ideology but is not under its operational control. As one commentator put it,

“Because lone wolves operate on their own, their personal agendas often mix with those of the terrorist group they claim to serve. In San Bernardino, the killers struck at a holiday party at the county health department where one of them worked, not exactly the center of the Crusader effort to dominate the Middle East.”

In fact, it seems very unlikely that the San Bernardino murders were the result of the twisted psychological problems of an unhappy couple. The fact that the killings occurred at a civil service office, which might imply a workplace shooting, was actually much more likely to have been a target of opportunity once the imploring calls for action coming from Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi gave the killers an emergency directive to act. This is confirmed by the enormous arsenal amassed by the killers, and the various quotidian acts they undertook in the days before the shooting — buying groceries, getting movie tickets and so on. And, as is almost always the case, once the lives of the killers are scrutinized, we invariably find recent trips to terrorist centers abroad. In the case of Syed Farook and Tashfeen Malik, the San Bernardino shooters, it was Pakistan and Saudi Arabia. In the case of the Chattanooga killer, it was Jordan. In the case of the Boston Marathon terrorists, it was Dagestan. In the case of Omar Mateen, the Orlando mass murderer, it was Saudi Arabia. Moreover, the father of the Chattanooga terrorist was himself on a terrorist watch list. The Tsarnaev brothers were on a watch list and had been interviewed by the FBI. Mateen was interviewed three times by the FBI. His father is a prominent Afghan political figure who urges acceptance of the Taliban. Being on a terrorist watch list, being interviewed by the FBI, traveling through war-torn areas where terrorist groups are prominent: These are not the characteristics of the misfits and loners who attack classrooms. Moreover, following the Islamic State’s recent battlefield setbacks, the Islamic State commander responsible for attacks outside the Middle East called on supporters to carry out killings in the United States during the holy month of Ramadan, which began June 5.

The myth of the lone wolf depends on the comforting distinction between “Islamic State-inspired” and “Islamic State-directed” attacks. The lone wolf, we are told, lacks those links with the terrorist network that would tip off the authorities. In an unfortunate lapse of logic, many people are inclined to conclude that if such links are not immediately apparent, the killer is a lone wolf: Lone wolves lack links, so if a terrorist lacks links, he is a lone wolf.

But the image of the isolated and unhappy youth, mesmerized by messages and violent videos on the Internet, the “self-radicalized” terrorist is an extremely unlikely occurrence. The vast majority of radicalized individuals come into contact with extremist ideology through offline socialization prior to becoming indoctrinated online. The Internet does not, in fact, radicalize in isolation of other factors, and it is not operating on isolated individuals when these people take up violence. Search engines rarely provide links to content that supports Islamist indoctrination. The Internet’s role is less about initiating the radicalization process than acting as a facilitator for educating and indoctrinating people who have already been recruited.

It is comforting to tell ourselves that someone like Mateen is merely hateful and pathetic, and not a component of some grandiose plot.” But it is deeply misleading if the precedents of the past decade are any guide, and it ultimately will be enervating to our strategies. After all, the self-radicalized lone wolf will always get through. What’s the point of expending much energy fruitlessly trying to stop him? And thus, support for more aggressive investigations and surveillance will naturally ebb; what good would they be against the lone wolf?

I was living in London at the time of the 7/7 terrorist attacks. The newspapers the next day were full of assessments and claims that the terrorist group was “local” and had no links with larger terrorist networks abroad. I cautioned at the time that this conclusion was premature, and therefore I was not surprised when the martyrdom videos surfaced. It may be recalled that the fourth member of the terrorist team did not execute his bombing mission on the underground as did the other three. His explosives went off while he was riding some miles away on the upper deck of a bus. Is it really so far-fetched to think that the telephone call to the cellphone that triggered the explosion was made by someone who didn’t want the conspirator to survive? Yet we are discomforted by the possibility of the networks to which these terrorists are attached.

Yesterday, by contrast, a vibrant and popular member of the British Parliament was murdered in her constituency by a deranged man. He seems to have been politically motivated — he reportedly shouted “Britain First” several times during the attack — but he was not politically active. His profile is a familiar one: raised apart from his natural parents, living alone for many years with a grandparent who is now deceased, helpful to neighbors though quiet. One knows the newspaper quotes from relatives: “I am struggling to believe what has happened. He is not violent and is not all that political. I don’t even know who he votes for. He has a history of mental illness.” Or from neighbors: “All this is totally at odds with the man we thought we knew. He was a quiet guy, you would not think it of him. There was no reason to think he would be capable of something like this.” This man, though he committed an act that will have significant political repercussions, was no terrorist. And though he acted alone, he was not the mythical lone wolf. More a wounded creature, I would say. For Americans, the murder of Britain’s Jo Cox is likely to remind us of the attempted killing of U.S. Congresswoman Gabrielle Giffords at a meeting in her constituency. The assassin actually killed six other people in the attack. He had been diagnosed as a paranoid schizophrenic and was only sentenced when the forcible administration of antipsychotic drugs brought him to a state in which the trial judge reversed an earlier ruling and held him competent for trial. What he shared with Cox’s murderer was a generalized if incoherent hatred of government and an apparently nonviolent personality.

Ogilvy: Professor Bobbitt, one more question please: In your book, you devote a great deal of attention to the danger of weapons of mass destruction. Indeed, the prevention of the proliferation of these weapons is one of your three wars on terror. But the weapon of choice in all of the attacks over the past several years is the assault rifle. Would you care to comment?

Bobbitt: These are very different problems, the terrorist malcontent and the wounded loner, though they may raise common policy issues like gun control. Where they really differ, however, is in their future access to weapons of mass destruction, which is one more reason to be wary of the lone wolf myth. The assault rifle was the weapon of choice for both the Giffords assassin and Mateen. But the men who sought to kill a U.S. congresswoman and a British lawmaker were not capable of the planning involved in a quasi-military attack. That wasn’t the case with Mateen. If he had had access to more formidable weapons, weapons a terrorist network could devise and deliver, one can only imagine the destruction he might have caused.

Terrorism in the Age of the Market State is republished with permission of Stratfor.”

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This is a personal blog, more of a personal notebook, unadvertised and without promotion. I try to post on a weekly basis, but there is no guarantee. Should you stumble across it and wish to be notified of new posts, just enter your email address at the upper-right of this page. I have no other use for email addresses. Rest assured, yours will be kept private. I also now tweet to share articles and essays that I think are important, but do not have room for here. You are welcome to make comments, if they are on topic and polite. I have no time or space for insults, foul language, or anything I judge to be offensive to readers.

Posted in Global analysis, Global politics | 1 Comment

Genetic Engineering and CRISPR

One of the issues I have dealt with in past posts and remains one of the most important trends that have my attention is genetic engineering. I have found it difficult to provide people who do not follow this trend with a general background of what is involved that is not too technical to understand, too argumentative that it leads to a purely emotional response, or just so “over-simplified” that it offers too little to bother watching. Today, I saw one that I think provides an overview without being too technical, too emotional, or too simplistic, but provides enough information to allow for discussion. It was produced by the BBC’s current affairs television program, Panorama, and I have embedded it below for anyone who is interested.

At this moment, I am buried in other work, so I am not yet ready to post. What I expect to post is also being written for publication elsewhere. When that’s done, I will share it here too. My goal is early next week…knock on wood.

The only other thing I will add today is that, in a couple years, this video will be too far out-of-date to be useful, but that will be then and this is now.

Panorama on CRISPR from Paper Cow on Vimeo.

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This is a personal blog, more of a personal notebook, unadvertised and without promotion. I try to post on a weekly basis, but there is no guarantee. Should you stumble across it and wish to be notified of new posts, just enter your email address at the upper-right of this page. I have no other use for email addresses. Rest assured, yours will be kept private. I also now tweet to share articles and essays that I think are important, but do not have room for here. You are welcome to make comments, if they are on topic and polite. I have no time or space for insults, foul language, or anything I judge to be offensive to readers.

Posted in Technology, The Future | 2 Comments

Mediocrity reigns

Mediocre means neither good nor bad, but at best, barely adequate. Mediocre political leadership today means it is not as good as it should be, not as bad as it could be, but given today’s world, not even barely adequate. In recent years, I have said, “Occasions arise that demand great leaders, but great leaders have not risen to the occasion.” Still true today.

This is not a long harangue against some individual leader, party, ideology, or nation. I find this sad state in North America, Europe, and most of the nations that we used to call the “First World” back in the 20th century, plus the majority of today’s “emerging markets” (Brazil, Russia, China, etc.) that are closely tied to the first group not just by trade, but by stock and bond markets.

The other sad truth is that these very nations have an incredible pool of talent that have done, are doing, and will do more to promote global progress, despite the failure of their leadership. Why don’t these relatively younger adults get involved in politics? Why don’t the “best and brightest” bring some of that intelligence and determination to public administration?

I think the answer is simple and obvious. It may sound odd, but it is “easier” to work with the complex technology of genetic engineering, artificial intelligence, virtual reality, autonomous vehicles, and so many other new fields than it is to lead a fractured, frightened public. On a risk/reward basis, there is no competition. Politics is a mud fight with little or nothing to gain for someone who is truly among the “best and brightest”. So they are simply too smart to get into politics. If there were truly great leaders in those nations I mentioned, these people would be there to help make it work, but it isn’t there, so neither are they.

In the past at Future Brief, I have talked about the emergence of a “global community” based not on nationality, but the ability to work above, beyond, and outside borders. The best and brightest are moving in that direction for the simple reason that they are the best and brightest. So far, they have been too smart to make the mistake of jumping into the morass of nation-state politics. They may do that someday, or they may move to another location globally where they are welcome and where leadership focuses on the future, not the past.

They are waiting for the final dying breaths of the 20th century, but they are not wasting their time on killing it off. They are getting ready to be part of something new, exciting, and potentially “dangerous”, but they are risk-takers, the people responsible for human progress throughout history.

I mentioned last week that these essays would be short in comparison to my past style. Each is a “piece” of a much greater puzzle and this is just one of them. There are more to come. Then we can begin the challenge of putting them together and trying to get a sense of where we are now, where we are headed, what we can expect, and what we can do about it.

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This is a personal blog, more of a personal notebook, unadvertised and without promotion. I try to post on a weekly basis, but there is no guarantee. Should you stumble across it and wish to be notified of new posts, just enter your email address at the upper-right of this page. I have no other use for email addresses. Rest assured, yours will be kept private. I also now tweet to share articles and essays that I think are important, but do not have room for here. You are welcome to make comments, if they are on topic and polite. I have no time or space for insults, foul language, or anything I judge to be offensive to readers.

Posted in Global analysis, Global politics, The Future | 1 Comment

Is Vladimir Putin on the way out?

There is buzz being generated about an analysis from the European Council on Foreign Relations forecasting the end of Vladimir Putin’s rule. How long does he have left? “In the view of this author, the regime has less than a year”. That is a very strong statement. The paper is only six pages long, not counting two pages that are not part of the actual paper. I think his arguments are very interesting and worth reading.

One of the greatest failures of the 20th century was for a veritable army of analysts, both public and private, academics, advisors, and others whose livelihoods depended on their analysis of the Soviet Union to see that very “union” crumble without recognizing it at the time. I have nothing to be proud of. It was not until December of 1988 when Mikhail Gorbachev spoke at the UN General Assembly that I finally accepted that the Soviet Union was really on the way out. I was not alone.

Russia is clearly in a very weak position and there is no particular reason to think it’s going to get out of it any time soon. This time, I will listen carefully to those who have the background to offer a well-reasoned argument for another “surprise”. Whether it comes out the way the author describes or not, or whether it comes soon or later, this is a paper well-worth reading. Thankfully, it’s not a dull boring academic treatise. It is presented in straight-forward language that any of us can understand.

I will give you a link so you can download your own copy. First, an introduction to the author taken from the paper.

“Nikolay Petrov is a visiting fellow at the European Council on Foreign Relations. He was chair of the Carnegie Moscow Center’s Society and Regions Program. He worked in the Institute of Geography at the Russian Academy of Sciences from 1982 to 2006. He served as chief organiser of the Analysis and Forecast Division in the Supreme Soviet (1991–1992), was an adviser and analyst for the Russian Presidential Administration (1994–1995), and a scholar at the Kennan Institute for Advanced Russian Studies (1993–1994) and the International Foundation for Electoral Systems (1994). From 1996 to 2000, Petrov worked at the Carnegie Moscow Center as a senior consultant and scholar-in-residence. Petrov earned his Ph.D. from Moscow State University.”

The PDF document can be downloaded here.

I have a new post of my own almost ready, but I will wait until tomorrow for that. This is enough for today. I hope you find it of interest.

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This is a personal blog, more of a personal notebook, unadvertised and without promotion. I try to post on a weekly basis, but there is no guarantee. Should you stumble across it and wish to be notified of new posts, just enter your email address at the upper-right of this page. I have no other use for email addresses. Rest assured, yours will be kept private. I also now tweet to share articles and essays that I think are important, but do not have room for here. You are welcome to make comments, if they are on topic and polite. I have no time or space for insults, foul language, or anything I judge to be offensive to readers.

Posted in Global analysis, Global politics, The Future | 1 Comment

It’s a Two-Track World. Now, about the Coming Collision…

We live in a two-track world, a Fast Track and a Slow Track, where the tracks seem to run parallel to each other on a day-to-day basis, but we know they will eventually meet and either merge into one track, or collide with each other.  The one I see coming will change future history in ways we can only imagine, but I’m betting on a collision before a merging of the two is possible.

The Fast Track is taken by those deeply excited and involved with the “Singularity”, automation, virtual reality, artificial/machine intelligence, genetic engineering, nanotechnology, autonomous vehicles, and a host of related areas.  In my experience, they are almost uniformly delighted and proud that they are on the Fast Track and look forward to the future with great hope and expectations.  They believe they think exponentially, emphasizing fast change.

The Slow Track is taken by those who spend 98% of their time just trying to keep up with their jobs, families, professions and so forth in the present. Many are not happy with what they have now or the direction we are taking.  Their unhappiness in the US and Europe is obvious.  They are said to think in linear terms which assumes a more gentle growth in the alternative technologies mentioned above.

Those on each track are aware of those on the other.

Fast Track people are a global group where nationality takes a back seat to tech expertise.  Appropriately or not, they tend to ignore the Slow Track because, in their opinion, those people are clueless and much too far behind to make it worthwhile to try to bring them up to speed.  Intentional or otherwise, a certain arrogance marks their work.  I think many of them believe that, by the time the Slow Track catches on to what is happening, they will be impressed by the results and want more.  And if they don’t, then they will be left behind.

Slow track people are not a global group.  Nationality, among other factors, remains important.  They hear from the Fast Track folks more and more, but still sporadically and at a distance.  Often, it relates to their coming loss of employment due to AI and automation.  Or it is their negative reaction to the whole idea of being programmed by their DNA with a lot less “free will” than they like to think they have.  It is important to remember that they are the majority and by a substantial margin. And, by the way, they include many very, very well-educated and “sophisticated” people too, but people whose work is unrelated to the Fast Track’s goals.  They will make their judgment when they have to make it, and if the Fast Track doesn’t appreciate that, they can take a short leap off a very tall cliff.  The majority rules when the majority demands it.  And if they are not dealt with intelligently, they will be the Fast Track’s worst nightmare.

There are two problems with this Fast Track/Slow Track analogy.

Neither track is either faster or slower than the other.  They are both at exactly the same “point in time”, moving in exactly the same direction in time, and moving at exactly the same speed.  The “speed” is just a reflection of what is going on in their heads.  This is something the folks who like to think they are Fast Track seem to sometimes forget.  It’s that arrogance thing again.

The second problem is that we might think the “tracks” run parallel to each other.  But as I mentioned at the outset of this essay, not so.  Whether slowly or suddenly, the two tracks will meet and either merge successfully into one, or provide a spectacular collision.  If I were you, I would place my bet on the collision.

What will bring on this collision?  Well, there will be a number of small collisions, but the Big One that really starts the societal debate can be any of a number of possibilities.  The only qualification is that it is something that smacks people emotionally and which is presented by the Fast Track without taking that very understandable emotional reaction from the Slow Track into consideration.

It could be something along the lines of In Search For Cures, Scientists Create Embryos That Are Both Animal And Human, but more dramatically presented.  Or it could be something along the lines of Soon you will be able to ride in a robo-taxi when both taxi drivers and Uber drivers find themselves without fares, and every other employed driver can start to sweat.  That target date of 2018 is a lot earlier than was being discussed, even a few months ago. 

It could be something that seems small at the time, or something obviously huge, but we all have to wait and see.  I just don’t think we will have to wait that long.

Whatever triggers the collision, it is likely to be based on the failure of Fast Track people to convince Slow Track people that all this is being done for them, not to them.  My experience with people from both tracks, and I am fortunate to have plenty of both, is that this is the real question and it will need to be answered clearly and positively, not just dropped on the public from above as a fait accompli.


A note to my hardly little band of readers!  I have not written much over the last few months, as you know if you have been following Future Brief for awhile.  My problem (it’s a genetic predisposition, I’m sure) is that I try to cover too many points at one time and the essay drags on forever.  So I will return to what this blog was about from the beginning – a personal notebook where I collect ideas that may later be used for publication.  So I expect to post more, but shorter essays (yes, this is a short essay…for me). Think of them as pieces of a much bigger puzzle. I do. Eventually, we can put them together.

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This is a personal blog, more of a personal notebook, unadvertised and without promotion. I try to post on a weekly basis, but there is no guarantee. Should you stumble across it and wish to be notified of new posts, just enter your email address at the upper-right of this page. I have no other use for email addresses. Rest assured, yours will be kept private. I also now tweet to share articles and essays that I think are important, but do not have room for here. You are welcome to make comments, if they are on topic and polite. I have no time or space for insults, foul language, or anything I judge to be offensive to readers.

Posted in Global analysis, Technology, The Future | Leave a comment

Letter From Panama

April was a tough month for those of us living in Panama, both Panamanians and expatriate residents like me. The so-called “Panama Papers” became an international sensation. Despite the fact that the “guilty parties” were foreigners, despite the fact that the bulk of their money was placed in various Caribbean nations and not Panama, despite the fact that the Panamanian people did not see a penny of that money (other than the law firm involved), and despite the fact that the law firm had offices in 34 nations, there was also one other fact. The law firm was headquartered in Panama. Thus, the Panama Papers.

As of yesterday, May 5th, we have another “crisis”. I don’t know what foreigners will call it, perhaps the “Waked Affair” after the family accused of the crimes, but here we go again. The story is that a very wealthy investor in Panama has been identified by the US Treasury Department as a money launderer for drug money, probably from our neighbors in Colombia where he is also well-known..  We are talking about a really big investor.  One of his projects, an indoor mall in Panama City, was a $400M project all by itself.  And there is plenty more.  Yesterday, we heard that the US Treasury Department has been investigating him and brought charges against him leading to his arrest and others, as well as jeopardizing his projects, including the mall which was also to house the new Ritz Carlton hotel.  It came as quite a bombshell.  A link to the Treasury Department’s press release will be included at the end of this post.

I want to say first that I see no reason to think there is any connection between the two. This latest scandal results from what I feel confident in saying was a very long and difficult investigation that began when no one was even thinking of any “Panama Papers”. But I have to agree, the timing was terrible! However, such it is. All of us in Panama will have to live with it. Putting emotion aside, let’s take a look at Panama’s growth.

The Growth Story

As the graph below shows clearly, Panama has experienced exceptional economic growth in recent years, expressed here as per-capita GDP. Note how it was “bunched” with other small Latin American nations in 1990, substantially behind the two big “emerging markets” in Latin America – Mexico and Brazil.

In 2006, we separated from our Costa Rican neighbors and headed up. By 2007, we passed Brazil. By 2009, we passed Mexico. Since then, we have left the rest behind and the gap continues to grow. Despite signing tax information sharing agreements with the US in 2011 and other nations on a bilateral basis, thus making Panama less attractive to tax evaders, the growth not only continued, it accelerated. It was during this period that the now-famous Panamanian law firm, Mossack Fonseca, saw its business begin to sharply decline as the Panama Papers attest. In short, Panama’s economic growth was not based on offshore banking. Sorry for the faint image, but the nations on the right from top to bottom are Panama, Mexico, Brazil, Costa Rica, Colombia, Peru, and Ecuador

The impetus for the growth shown above has been the purposeful decisions of various Panamanian administrations since shortly after the turn of the century.

A law passed in 2007, as just one example, made it attractive to large multi-nationals to move their regional offices from elsewhere in Latin America to Panama. So far, 124 firms from Caterpillar to 3M and beyond have done just that, bringing their money and thousands of jobs for Panamanians. Most of them set up operations at Panama Pacifico, a $700M project overseen by Britain’s London & Regional Properties Panama subsidiary with its own airport, free trade zone, and a government office designed to help them set up and operate easily. It has been a great success and continues to grow. In addition, the government is considering expansion of the law to encourage manufacturing operations to relocate here as well.

Beyond efforts like that one, there is the Panama Canal expansion, the creation of a transport, communications, and logistic platform in support of regional and global trade, and a massive increase in greatly improved infrastructure of all kinds that sets it apart from other Latin American nations. Although half or more of Panama’s GDP was derived from agriculture in most of the 20th century, agriculture, livestock, and fishing combined represented only 2.8% of the GDP in 2015. In addition, tourism has exploded in the last decade and its contribution has grown exponentially.

And there is more to come. It is not just the Canal expansion, but other projects of note. One obvious example is a copper mine which will be one of the world’s largest when it is completed in the next couple years. It provides very little to the GDP today while under construction (which is proceeding well), but its contribution will arrive soon enough and it will be significant. The investment being made in this project is even greater than the cost of the Canal expansion.

Enough. If anyone needs more statistics, there are plenty of them. One good site to visit is the National Institute of Statistics and the Census (INEC is the Spanish acronym) at its website where you can find the monthly, quarterly, and annual stats, plus the results of the Population and Housing Census of 2010, the Agricultural Census of 2011, and the National Economic Census of 2012. The real data is available for anyone willing to actually research it, not just guess or emote.

Simply put, Panama passed through the global financial crisis of 2009 without damage. Not only did the nation keep right on growing, but not a single penny of Panamanian taxpayer money had to bail anybody out. Additionally, the recent collapse in commodity prices that has trashed so many other Latin American economies, among others, has benefited us since these commodities are not sold by Panama, they are bought by Panama, and we are all thankful for the low prices. When the copper mine is functioning that may change a bit, but cheap commodities are a big net positive for us now.

The Current Crisis

Okay, let’s get back to the current Waked Affair or whatever it ends up being called. This is more painful as thousands of innocent people here who had absolutely no idea that anything illegal was going on now fear the loss of their jobs. It is not just lawyers at a law firm. That hurts, but we will deal with it and are dealing with it. One thing I appreciate is that yesterday’s surprise also demonstrated that the US government, the Panamanian government, and the Colombian government all cooperated to do what needed to be done. As the news broke, Panama’s Superintendent of Banks moved into the Panamanian bank involved and took control while Colombian authorities arrested one of the primary people charged with these crimes at the airport in Bogota.

As for drugs, Panama doesn’t even grow the coca plant, much less produce and export cocaine or any other illegal drug. We just happen to be stuck between the South American producers and the US consumers.

But let me sum things up by speaking to three groups of people – my neighbors here in Panama, the foreigners who are watching this unfold with us, and specifically those foreigners who choose to be our critics.

Friends and Neighbors

To my friends, business associates, and all the people of Panama, let me sincerely thank you for providing me with a “permanent residency” visa to live and work with you in Panama. You may be surprised to know that I take the word “permanent” seriously. This is my home and I am proud of it, as much today as any day before.

As a permanent resident, I have a responsibility to stand with you at times like this. As a US citizen, I never have hesitated to criticize US policy when I felt it necessary and continue to do so when appropriate. I would do the same here now, or at the very least be silent, if I felt it was necessary, but I do not.

I know many of you feel like Panama is a tennis ball being slapped back and forth by outsiders who do not have a clue about you and your nation. I know that you have long believed that foreigners evading taxation and drug traffickers from outside have used Panama for their own purposes. But you did not and do not have the resources to uncover something as complex as the current money laundering scandal.

Just like the law firm that had offices in 34 nations, Grupo Wisa, the prime target in this case, had operations in Colombia, Guatemala, Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Mexico, Bolivia, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Uruguay. We can only imagine how difficult it was to unravel their operations and find the facts. I encourage you to see this revelation not as an insult, but as a gift. You can use that gift to help drive this money laundering business out of Panama, once and for all.

Above all, do not be ashamed. You have done more than 95+% of nations on this planet in the 21st century to build a dynamic economy based on solid achievement. What has happened in recent weeks is the shedding of the past century’s remaining ties to Panama. Good riddance. You will get through this and I and other expat residents like me from all over the world will have your back.

To Those Outside

As for those from other nations who are hearing about this and wondering if Panama is a dangerous place, full of criminals, nonsense! If you are interested in relocating here, investing here, or both, there is no reason not to follow up on that. A visit here and the opportunity to meet and talk with Panamanians and other expats will demonstrate that this is exactly what it is – a rapidly growing economy based on real effort, not the financial shenanigans of foreigners and a tiny crowd of Panamanians.

To those, especially in the US and Europe, who see this as an opportunity to pretend to be morally and intellectually superior and trash talk Panama, grow up! Look at the mess you’re in.

Europe is just amazing. You are not a mess, you’re a disaster. It is beyond words. You have our sympathies, but there is nothing we can do about it. Good luck to you.

As for those from the Right who think all of us are lazy, shiftless, ignorant people scratching out a living with a hoe and those from the Left who despise the success of our free enterprise economy while socialist economies all over Latin America are in various states of distress or even collapse, give it up. You are wrong.

Honestly, it is pathetic. It was the “advanced economies” of the North Atlantic, both sides, which brought us the great Stock Market Bubble in the early years of this century that lost trillions of dollars for tens of millions of households in their nations and “collateral damage” to many others.

It was the same nations who no sooner burst that bubble than began blowing a second Real Estate Bubble that burst and not only lost trillions of dollars, but left behind other trillions of unpayable debt and the ruined dreams of so many innocent people.

Now we hear those same nations talk about a growing “Debt Bubble” as they face the consequences of failing to meet their problems by trying to buy their way out of them.

The Panamanian people may have been poorly treated by foreigners who used them for their own purposes and by some of their own people as well, but I am watching as they struggle to deal with the fallout as constructively as they can without blaming anyone else. You should try that too.

Your bubble problems were not caused by Panamanians, Mexicans, Muslims, the Freemasons, the Illuminati, Scientology, FEMA, the New World Order, the Federal Reserve, Citibank, Halliburton, Google, the Vatican, Bilderburg, Walmart, the Rothschilds, the Knights Templar, the UN, Skull & Bones, the Bohemian Grove, the Koch Brothers, George Soros, the Trilateral Commission, the Knights of Malta, the Committee on Foreign Relations, Exxon Mobil, the Zionists, the Vril Society, or the Lizard People. You did it to yourselves. Suck it up, get to work, and fast. And for everyone’s sake, don’t let your Debt Bubble blow us all up!

Summing It Up

Next year, I will celebrate my 50th year since I first got on a plane as a new Peace Corps Volunteer off to the Philippines, never dreaming that it would change my life and introduce me to so many wonderful people in so many nations as it has. I have worked as an employee, a manager, or a consultant in various sectors of economic development to public and private agencies, to for-profits and non-profits, in some 45 nations or so, but I stopped counting a long time ago. I am no stranger to the global scene.

Rest assured, there are bad Panamanians, immoral Panamanians, corrupt Panamanians, and others like them; exactly the same as I have seen in every human society in which I have lived and worked. As I say to people coming to Panama to find their “little piece of Paradise”, Paradise is for dead people. For the living, Panama is a great place to live and work. And those bad Panamanians I mention above are vastly outnumbered by really good people with their eyes set on the future and determined to build, not tear down, their society. I wouldn’t trade places with anyone else.

Panama is a genuine democracy and the votes are counted honestly. The press is fee and has been full of political debate and controversy every day since I arrived here in February of 2004. No President can serve two consecutive terms, but since the bad old days of the 1980s and Manuel Noriega, no political party has been returned to power for two consecutive terms. Our current President’s political party is only the third-largest party in the National Assembly where the hooting and hollering goes on constantly. But when the day comes that decisions have to be made, they sit down and work something out. People of the US and Europe, please take note.

One of my greatest joys is to be with an expat who lived in Panama during the 80s or 90s, or earlier and has come back to visit. Their eyes pop out when they see everything that has changed. Even since five years ago, the changes are impossible to miss.

So bring on the scandals or whatever you want to call them! They do not kill us, but they do make all of us, citizens and permanent residents alike, stronger and better.

So come on down, then come back in five years.

To read the US Dept of the Treasury’s press release on this matter, click here.

To read a list of people and entities charged by the Treasury, click here.

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This is a personal blog, more of a personal notebook, unadvertised and without promotion. I try to post on a weekly basis, but there is no guarantee. Should you stumble across it and wish to be notified of new posts, just enter your email address at the upper-right of this page. I have no other use for email addresses. Rest assured, yours will be kept private. I also now tweet to share articles and essays that I think are important, but do not have room for here. You are welcome to make comments, if they are on topic and polite. I have no time or space for insults, foul language, or anything I judge to be offensive to readers.

Posted in Uncategorized | 1 Comment

Stratfor video: The Iranian Military Complex

It has been a long time since I posted due to workload, but this video report from Stratfor is a quick update on Iran and its military activities. It deserves your attention for two minutes. Not good news. It is not yet available at YouTube for embedding, so I will send you directly to Satellite Images: An Iranian Military Complex. It is republished with permission of Stratfor.

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A Killer is on the loose

Right now, today, as you read this, a killer is loose that threatens your life. The murderous cowards of ISIS pale in comparison to this killer and we all need to know about it. It is receiving some attention, but I fear not enough to promote the kind of rapid reaction that is so obviously required. Once in awhile, a touch of panic can be useful.

The one thing it has in common with ISIS is a name that is uninformative in itself and deceptively simple. – MRC-1.  It is only now becoming public and there is coverage from some responsible publications.  However, I fear the coverage is too low-key to promote the sort of immediate action required.  I hope that changes soon.  First, let me give you a basic description of MRC-1 and a few links.

MRC-1 is a new gene.  It has been found in the E. Coli bacteria that causes plenty of trouble already, including killing its host if untreated.  But now, E. Coli  is far more formidable and this gene can spread to the genomes of other bacteria relatively rapdily, salmonella for example.  It was first found in China, but there are indications that it has already spread to Laos and Malaysia, and no reason to expect it to stop there.  The problem is simple.  We have nothing to defend ourselves from it or cure it.

Like so many people, I have long feared the rise of a “killer virus” against which we have no defense or cure and which spreads easily.  But there has always been an alternate route for such a deadly organism and that is a bacterial infection, not a viral infection.  Well, here we go.

I first heard of this new gene today at KurzweilAI.net, Ray Kurzweil’s website.  News sites are beginning to pick the story up.  Here is an article at BBC’s website and another at the English-language version of Deutsche Welle.  These are more than sufficient to get the point across, but they have one “weakness”.  Their presentations are too technical.  Yes, that is a responsible approach under most circumstances, but in this case, it also means less reading, less comprehension, and less demand for action.

Is action really required?  Here are a few quotations from the above sources.

  • Prof Timothy Walsh, who collaborated on the study, from the University of Cardiff, told the BBC News website: “All the key players are now in place to make the post-antibiotic world a reality.  If MCR-1 becomes global, which is a case of when not if, and the gene aligns itself with other antibiotic resistance genes, which is inevitable, then we will have very likely reached the start of the post-antibiotic era. At that point if a patient is seriously ill, say with E. coli, then there is virtually nothing you can do.”
  • Dr. Walsh, “an expert in antibiotic resistance, is best known for his discovery in 2011 of the disease-causing antibiotic-resistant superbug in New Delhi’s drinking water supply” again – “MCR-1 is likely to spread to the rest of the world at an alarming rate unless we take a globally coordinated approach to combat it. In the absence of new antibiotics against resistant gram-negative pathogens, the effect on human health posed by this new gene cannot be underestimated.”
  • “The transfer rate of this resistance gene is ridiculously high, that doesn’t look good,” said Prof Mark Wilcox, from Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust.  His hospital is now dealing with multiple cases “where we’re struggling to find an antibiotic” every month – an event he describes as being as “rare as hens’ teeth” five years ago.  He said there was no single event that would mark the start of the antibiotic apocalypse, but it was clear “we’re losing the battle”.
  • Prof Laura Piddock, from the campaign group Antibiotic Action, said the same antibiotics “should not be used in veterinary and human medicine”.  She told the BBC News website: “Hopefully the post-antibiotic era is not upon us yet. However, this is a wake-up call to the world.”

For those interested in the actual study, an abstract (and a full copy if you are a subscriber) can be found here.  It was published last Wednesday.

As you read the articles, you will find that considerable emphasis is placed on the misuse of antibiotics.  I agree.  There is also some emphasis on the technical aspects, the sort of thing most of the public will not understand or care about, frankly.  Fine, but it waters down the impact of these findings and, perhaps worst of all, the lack of any real knowledge as to how far this gene-based infection has spread.

Actually, I would expect more on that topic if governments and health agencies were on top of this as, after all, the study wasn’t written and published overnight.  As they write at the Lancet, “The prevalence of mcr-1 was investigated in E coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae strains collected from five provinces between April, 2011, and November, 2014”, so this is something that has been known for awhile, but only now has reached a level that triggers a serious response.

This is science.  It takes time and you need to be sure you have it right before you publish.  And if you are part of the general media, it is best to downplay it or simply ignore it if it is just a possible problem, not a real threat.  There is no need to cause “unnecessary panic”, they might say.  That phrase bothers me in this case.  I have experience with that.

Although my graduate work at Cornell was in nutrition policy planning when I was an active consultant on public health and nutrition problems in the “developing world” of the last century, I was very much concerned with SARS in China back in 2003 when it suddenly appeared in the news.

In those days, I had a blog called Global Angst, no longer in operation, which drew hundreds of daily readers and, as SARS developed, thousands.  I had raised a question about the fatality (mortality) rate of the SARS virus.  Some of the statistical information available in the press didn’t make sense.  The World Health Organization (WHO) was stating that the fatality rate was 4% or less, but stats I had seen indicated it was much higher.   It seemed to be a question of how you determine a fatality rate.  Let me give you a very simple example.

You have 100 cases of a deadly disease.  90 patients are in process, 10 have completed their course.  Two patients have died so far.  You can say that the fatality rate is 2% as only 2 of 100 cases have resulted in death.  Or you can say that, since 90 of them are not yet determined, the rate is 2 out of 10, or 20%.  That’s a pretty big difference.

One man who read my blog wrote me, Dr. Johan Karlberg, both a physician and a PhD, the Director of the Clinical Trials Centre at the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Hong Kong.  He was collecting the real-time stats and publishing them, but very few people were aware of that as his center’s site was not at all well-known.  His stats suggested the fatality rate, as a percentage of those who had completed the course of the disease, was around 16%.

This really upset me.  Global “authorities” were not providing the whole story.  indeed, they were distorting it, so I did my best to spread the word of Dr. Karlberg’s work as far and wide as I could.  He and I began a correspondence by email and phone on the topic, discussing a possible project to deal more effectively with the reality on the ground.  We were concerned that the virus might be easily transferred and thus a true global threat.

As it turned out, that was not the case, so we put the project aside and went our separate ways, but I will always think well of him.  He reported the reality, despite working in what was already part of the PRC which was not interested in bringing any more bad publicity to its failure to alert the world to SARS until it was too big to ignore.  If you remember that period, you will remember how seriously China was criticized on that point.

Some months later, when pushed by journalists, the WHO did finally admit that it had used the lower statistic to avoid “unnecessary panic”. The truth did eventually come out, but if SARS had turned out to be highly infectious, that admission would still haunt WHO today.

I was very much impressed with the professionalism and honesty of Dr. Karlberg 12 years ago and, although he has surely long forgotten me, I have not forgotten him and I am pleased to note that he is now a Vice President of ACRES, the Alliance for Clinical Research Excellence and Safety in Cambridge, Massachusetts.

Forgive me if I feel a twinge of déjà vu today.  Yes, I know.  This is 2015, not 2003.  Yes, the danger has been announced and the articles do express some serious concern, but I am going to be watching it carefully.  “Authorities” have already gotten a bad name for themselves in many nations for their failure to deal with problems before they got out of hand.  We cannot afford that with this deadly threat.

I think the need for considering the worst scenario is extremely urgent.  This is a gene that can spread rapidly to multiple bacteria beyond E. COli, not a virus like SARS that spread slowly and with difficulty from person to person.   MRC-1 has the real potential to be a global disaster.  It deserves not just immediate attention, but the resources required to deal with it immediately too.

Warned of a +potential “perfect storm”, this is not a good time to treat MRC-1 as a “tempest in a teapot”.

——-

This is a personal blog, more of a personal notebook, unadvertised and without promotion. I try to post on a weekly basis, but there is no guarantee. Should you stumble across it and wish to be notified of new posts, just enter your email address at the upper-right of this page. I have no other use for email addresses. Rest assured, yours will be kept private. I also now tweet to share articles and essays that I think are important, but do not have room for here. You are welcome to make comments, if they are on topic and polite. I have no time or space for insults, foul language, or anything I judge to be offensive to readers.

Posted in Global analysis, The Future | Leave a comment